Born: 1 November 1969                                                                           

Nationality: Danish

Status: Married to Kimiko, two daughters.                                            

Tel: +45-31314630. Email: morten.pedersen@anhtro.ku.dk            

Education

1997-2002    Cambridge University/King's College Ph.D., Department of Social Anthropology

1996-1997    Aarhus University, Cand. Phil.,

    Department of Ethnography and Social Anthropology

1993-1994    University of Manchester, ERASMUS student,

    Department of Social Anthropology

1991-1993    Aarhus University Exam. Art,

    Department of Ethnography and Social Anthropology

1990-1991    Aarhus University, Mathematics and Physics student

    at the Faculty of Natural Sciences.

Employment

2013               Professor of Social Anthropology, Copenhagen University

2013               Visiting professor, Centre for Cosmopolitan Studies,

University of St. Andrews

2008-2013       Associate Professor, Department of Anthropology, Copenhagen University

2005               Visiting researcher, Mongolia and Inner Asia Studies Unit,

University of Cambridge

2004-2008       Assistant Professor, Department of Anthropology, Copenhagen University

2002-2004       Postdoctoral researcher, Department of Anthropology,

Copenhagen University

2002                Affiliated Lecturer, Department of Anthropology, Copenhagen University

2000-2001       Scriptwriter and researcher, Haslund Film, Copenhagen

Fieldworks and expeditions

2012        Chinese energy investments in Eastern Mongolia (3 weeks)

2011        Chinese energy investments in Ulaanbaatar and Eastern Mongolia (6 weeks)

2010        Chinese energy investments in Ulaanbaatar (2 weeks)

2009        Chinese energy investments in Ulaanbaatar and Eastern Mongolia (3 months)

2009        Shamanism in Northern Mongolia (1 month)

2006        Trade and ethnicity in Xingjian, Western China (3 weeks)

2004        Traders and marketers in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia (9 months)

2003        Traders and marketers in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia (3 months)

2001        Working class youth in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia (2 months)

2000        Religious specialists in Northern Hövsgöl, Mongolia (2 months)

1998-99   Nomads and hunters in Northern Hövsgöl, Mongolia (14 months)

1997        Nomads and hunters in Northern Hövsgöl, Mongolia (2 months)

1995        Expedition to Gobi Desert and Hövsgöl, Mongolia (9 months)

1991        Expedition to Kamchatka in the Russian Far East (2 months)

Research management

  • Deputy Head of Department, Department of Anthropology, University of Copenhagen (2010-13)
  • Chairman of the Research Committee, Dep. of Anthropology, University of Copenhagen (2010-13)
  • Research & University Admin Leadership Training Course, University of Copenhagen (spring 2011)
  • Member of Young Research Leaders’ Forum, Fac. of Social Sciences, Copenhagen University (2010)
  • Co-PI on Social Fabric: Centre for Computational Social Science (2013-
  • PI on Optimal Distortion: Ethnographic Explorations of Paradoxical Connections (2012-15)
  • PI on Imperial Potentialities: Chinese Energy Projects in Mongolia and Mozambique (2009-2012)
  • Research Coordinator for Anthropology in CAST, Cop. Univ. Centre of Excellence (2008-2013)
  • Member of the Working Group on Innovation and Entrepreneurship at Cop. University (2004-2008)
  • Member of the Research Committee, Dep. of Anthropology, University of Copenhagen (2006-2008)
  • Member (with O. Wæver and H. Koch) of Copenhagen University’s IARU Delegation (2007-2009)
  • Member of the Asian Dynamics Initiative Research Committee at Copenhagen University (2008-)
  • Co-ordinator of Nordic & East/Central European Network for Social Scientific Research (2004-07)
  • Member of the Teaching Committee (Studienævnet), Dep. of Anthropology, Cop. Univ. (2003-2005)

International Collaboration and Service for the Discipline

  • Peer reviewer for American Ethnologist, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Current Anthropology, Anthropological Theory, Ethnos, Inner Asia, Hau: Journal of Ethnographic Theory, Chicago University Press, Oxford University Press, Manchester University Press, Berghahn Books, and Global Oriental Press.
  • Advisory board, International Political Anthropology (2008-) and Hau: Journal of Ethnographic Theory (2011-)
  • Tenure Track Assessment Committee Member, American University of Rome (2010) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2011)
  • Co-organiser of the Panel “Borderline Intimacies: Sino-Xeno Encounters in Inner Asia and Sub-saharan Africa. Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, San Francisco (2012).
  • Co-organiser of The Copenhagen Center for Computational Social Science Inaugural Workshop, Faculty of Social Science, University of Copenhagen (December 2011)
  • Organiser of two international workshops on “Times of Security: Comparative Ethnographies of Securitization” at CAST, University of Copenhagen (April 2009, March 2011)
  • Co-organiser of the workshop “Post-Authoritarian Political Movements” at the ADI conference on Asian Dynamics and Global Complexity held at Copenhagen University (November 2010).
  • Organiser of panel at the Detachment Conference at CRASH, University of Cambridge (July 2010).
  • Co-organiser of International Conference on Comparative Relativism, ITU, Copenhagen (Sept. 2009)
  • Co-organiser of workshop on Radical Change, Antropologisk Megaseminar, Sandbjerg (Jan 2008)
  • Co-organiser of workshop After the Whole, Antropologisk Megaseminar, Hindsgavl Slot (June 2006).
  • Co-organiser of three workshops on Technologies of the Imagination at Corpus Christy College, Cambridge, LSE, and UCL. (2004-2006)
  • Co-organiser of four international workshops in the research network Uncertainty and Freedom in the Postsocialist World in Oslo, Budapest, St. Petersburg, and Copenhagen (2004-07).
  • Member of Editorial Board, Tidsskriftet Antropologi (2003-2006).
  • Board member of the Danish-Mongolian Society (2002-).
  • Board member of the Danish Ethnographical Society (1992-1997).

Awards, scholarships and grants

2013   Funding for Social Fabric from UCPH Excellence Program for Interdisciplinary Research (2016 Funds) Co-PI). 15.964.00 DKK

2012   Honourable mention for the Bateson Prize awarded the Society for Cultural Anthropology for Not Quite Shamans (Cornell 2011)

2012   Shortlisted for the 2012 Central Eurasian Studies Book Prize for Not Quite Shamans (Cornell 2011)

2012   Nominated for the “Danish Elite Researcher Prize” by the Faculty of Social Sciences, Copenhagen U.

2011   Sapere Aude “Elite” Research Leader grant from DK Research Board of the Humanities for Optimal Distortion: Ethnographic Explorations of Paradoxical Connections (PI). 8.390.450 DKK

2011   Seed money from Faculty of Social Science and Centre for IT Innovation, Copenhagen University, for inter-departmental research project Copenhagen Centre of Quantitative and Experimental SocialScience. 172.000 DKK (with Anders Blok, D. D. Larsen, S. Kyllingsbæk and S. Lehmann).

2009   Grant from the DK Research Board of the Social Sciences for Imperial PotentialitiesChinese Infrastructure Projects in Mongolia and Mozambique  (PI). 4.800.000 DKR

2007   Funding for own research, 1 PhD student, and guest professor in conjunction with the Copenhagen University’s Centre of Excellence CAST (Centre for Advanced Security Theory). 2.5000.000 DKR

2007   Panel Mark 7.75 in ERC Grant Application Objects of Security: Chinese Resource Interventions in Africa and Asia (PI). If mark had been 8.00, application would have qualified for second round.

2005   Award from HH Crown Prince Frederik's Foundation for fieldwork in Mongolia. 30.000 DKR.

2005   Grant for film research in Xingjian, China, from the EU and the Danish Film Institute (with M.Haslund-Christensen). 250.000 DKR.

2004   Grant from the DK Research Council of the Social Sciences 'Uncertainty and Freedom Research Network. Ethnographies of Second Generation Change in the Postsocialist World' (with F. Nielsen). 1.000.000 DKR.

2004   Grant for project on Technologies of the Imagination from the Innovation Fund of the British Arts and Humanities Research Board (with D. Sneath and M. Holbraad). 420.000 DKR.

2002   Post-doc on Mongolian Markets, DK Research Council of the Humanities 1.200.000 DKR.

2000   King’s College Studentship and William Wyse Bursary, both University of Cambridge. 75.000 DKR.

1999   Grants for documentary film production in Mongolia from the Danish Film Institute; DR, Swedish TV; and the Nordic Board of Television Production (with M. Haslund-Christensen). 2.000.000 DKR.

1997   “Elite” Ph.D. scholarship for King's College, Cambridge from DK Research Academy. 900.000 DKR.

1997   Ph.D. scholarship for Churchill College, Cambridge from the Carlsberg Foundation. 750.000 DKR.

1995   Funding for expedition to Mongolia from HM Queen Margrethe II & Prince Henrik's Foundation; Kong Christian X's Foundation; Mindefondet, and Moesgaard Museum (with L. Højer). 45.000 DKR.

1995   Funding for exhibition 'På Rejse i Sibirien' from Queen Margrethe & Prince Henrik's FundAarhus Municipality, and Tipsmidlerne (with I. Asmussen and R. & E. Willerslev) 600.000 DKR 

Invited lectures (selected)

2013   Detaching the Spirits in Postsocialist Mongolia: Shamanism, Disbelief, and Christian Conversion. Dept. of Anthropology, University of St. Andrews.

2013   Chinese resource extraction in Mongolia: Anthropological perspectives. Selwyn College, University of Cambridge.

2012   Intimately Distant: Studying Chinese Infrastructure Projects in Inner Asia Collaboratively. Mongolia and Inner Asia Studies Unit, University of Cambridge. With B. Bunkenborg

2012   Participant Obviation: Studying Chinese Infrastructure Projects in Inner Asia and Africa Collaboratively. Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, San Francisco.

2012   Studying Chinese Projects in Mongolia and Mozambique. Preliminary Findings from a Comparative and Collaborative Ethnography. Anthropological Frontier Seminar. Renmin Daxue University, Beijing. With. M. Bunkenborg & M. Nielsen

2012   The Ethnographic Experiment. Forum for Samfundsvidenskabernes Filosofi, København.

2012   Incidental Connections. Freedom and Urban Life in Mongolia. “Freedom, Creativity and Decision”, CRASH, University of Cambridge

2012   Detaching the Spirits in Mongolia. Department of Anthropology, Bergen University

2011   Shamanic Spirits in Transition. The Agrarian Studies Seminar, Yale University

2011   Occult Economies of What? Contemporary Cosmologies Conference, UCL, London

2010   “The Task of Anthropology is to Invent Relations”: For the Motion. Key Debates in Anthropological Theory, University of Manchester

2010    Detaching the Spirits in Mongolia: A Postrelational Analysis. Paper presented at the CRASH Rethinking Detachment Conference, held at Girton College, Cambridge.

2010   ‘He is off to somewhere’. Debt as a spatiotemporal affect in Ulaanbaatar. Paper presented at the Urban Times Workshop, held at the Centre for Cosmopolitan Studies, University of St. Andrews

2009    Infrastructural Involutions: The temporality of Chinese Investments in Mozambique. Paper presented at the “Economies of the Future” panel at the annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Philadelphia (with Morten Nielsen)

2009   The Politics of Non-identity. Comparative Relativism Conference, IT University, Copenhagen.

2009   Apparently Irrational Optimism. Paper presented at the Department of Anthropology, LSE.

2009    Chopping the Meshwork. Paper presented at the “Materializing the Subject” conference, CRESH, University of Manchester.

2009   Work and Hope in Ulaanbaatar. Paper presented at the Department of Anthropology, Brunel University, London.

2008   Hope and Fortune in Urban Mongolia. The Harriman Institute, Colombia University.

2008   The Work of Hope in Ulaanbaatar. Paper presented at the Department of Anthropology, Cornell University.

2008   A Day in the Cadillac. Hope and Fortune in Urban Mongolia. Paper presented at “Economies of Fortune” conference at King’s College, Cambridge.

2006   The Virtual Temple. The Imaginary Power of Artefacts in Darhad Buddhism. French-Anglo Seminar on Power in Inner Asia, Sorbonne, Paris.

2006   Unmaking Nokia. Department of Anthropology, University College London.

2005   Incomplete Shamans and Roaming Bears. Animist Perspectives on the State in Mongolia. Paper presented at the Department of Anthropology, Aberdeen University.

2005   The Phenomenology of Trading in Postsocialist Mongolia. Department of Anthropology, University of St. Andrews.

2005   Making the Multiple Modern. Paper presented at workshop on Technologies of the Imagination, Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.

2004   Talismans of Thought. Shamanist Ontology and Extended Cognition in Northern Mongolia. Paper presented at the workshop Thinking Through Things, CRASH, University of Cambridge.

2004   I sell, therefore I am. Commodity-person interfaces on the Ulaanbaatar Market Scene. Paper presented at the 8th Biennial conference of EASA, Vienna, Austria.

2003   The end of Postsocialism as a Concept? Third Nordic Conference on Postsocialist Studies, Oslo.

2003   Where is the Mafia? Ulaanbaatar in the Age of the Market. Department of  Anthropology, Goldsmiths College, London.

2003   The Khan's two Bodies. Paper presented at the Joint Anglo-French Seminar on Inner Asian Technologies of Statecraft, Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.

2003   Tame from Within. Sacred Landscapes among the Darxads of Northern Mongolia. Paper presented at the Tenth Meeting of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, St. Hugh’s College, Oxford.

2002   Rethinking Tyranny: Ataman Culture and the Political Imagination in Outer Mongolia. The Senior Seminar, Department of Social Anthropology, Cambridge University.

2000   Shamanism and Humour in Northern Mongolia. Mongolia and Inner Asia  Studies Unit, Cambridge University.

1999   Circuits of Exchange: a new Mode of Exchange in Rural Mongolia? Paper presented at the IAAS Conference on Mongolia Between Country and City. Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, Copenhagen.

1998   Networking the Landscape: Spatial Economy and Ritual Movement in Northern Mongolia. Paper presented at The Second Baltic-Scandinavian Research Workshop. Tartu University, Estonia.

Publications

Monographs

Under contract     Urban Hunters. Dealing and Dreaming in Times of Transition. New Haven: Yale University Press. Co-authored with Lars Højer.    

2011        Not Quite Shamans. Spirit Worlds and Political Lives in Northern Mongolia. Cornell University Press.

Edited volumes

2013 (ed.)       Times of Security: Ethnographies of Fear, Protest and  the Future. London: Routledge. Co-edited with Martin Holbraad.

2011 (ed.)        “Comparative Relativism”. Special issue of Common Knowledge 17 (1). Co-edited with Casper Bruun Jensen and Britt Ross Winthereik.

2009 (ed.)        "Technologies of the Imagination. Comparative Ethnographies of Imaginative Effects”. Special issue of Ethnos, 74 (1). Co-edited with Martin Holbraad.

2007 (ed.)        "Inner Asian Perspectivisms". Special issue of Inner Asia 10 (2). Co-edited with Caroline Humphrey and Rebecca Empson.

2007  (ed.)       "Kognition". Tidsskriftet Antropologi 53. Co-edited with Christian Højbjerg and Andreas Roebstorff.               

Book series

2012 (ed.)    “Ethnography, Theory, Experiment”. Oxford: Berghahn Books. With Martin Holbraad and Rane Willerslev.

Peer reviewed articles

Submitted   “Detaching the Spirits in Postsocialist Mongolia:  Shamanism, Disbelief, and Christian Conversion”. American Anthropologist.

Submitted   “Debt as an Urban Affect in Ulaanbaatar”. Time & Society.

In press      “Trans-Temporal Hinges: Comparing Chinese  Investments in Mozambique and Mongolia”. Social Analysis 57 (1). Co-authored with Morten Nielsen.

In press      “’Vi bebor mangfoldige verdener’: for udsagnet”. Tidsskrift for Antropologi.

2012   “Roads that Separate: Sino-Mongolian Relations in the Inner Asian Desert”. Mobilities 7 (4): pp. 554-569. Co-authored with Mikkel Bunkenborg.

2012   "Revolutionary Securitization: An Anthropological Extension of Securitization Theory".  International Theory 4 (2): 165-197. Co-authored with Martin Holbraad.

2012   “A Day in the Cadillac. The Work of Hope in Urban Mongolia” Social Analysis 56 (2): 136-151.

2012   “The Soul of the Soul is the Body’. Rethinking the Soul through North Asian Ethnography”. Common Knowledge 18 (3): 464-486. With R. Willerslev.

2012   “The Task of Anthropology is to Invent Relations: For the Motion” Critique of Anthropology 32 (1): 59-65.

2011   "Non-identity Politics". Common Knowledge 17 (1), 117-22.  

2009   Planet M. The Intense Abstraction of Marilyn Strathern. Anthropological Theory 9 (4): 371-394.

2009   ”Introduction: Technologies of the Imagination”. Ethnos, 74 (1): 5-30. Co-authored with David. Sneath & Martin Holbraad.

2008   "Lost in transition. Fuzzy property and leaky selves in Ulaanbaatar". Ethnos 73 (1), pp. 73-96. Co-authored with Lars Højer.

2007   "Multiplicity minus myth. Theorizing Darhad Perspectivism". Special issue of Inner Asia 10 (1), M. A. Pedersen, R, Empson and C. Humphrey (eds.).

2007   ”Editorial Introduction: Inner Asian Perspectivisms”. Special issue of Inner Asia 10 (1), M. A. Pedersen, R, Empson and C. Humphrey (eds.). Co-authored with R. Empson and C. Humphrey.

2007   "Talismans of Thought. Shamanist Ontology and Extended Cognition in Northern Mongolia". In: A. Henare, M. Holbraad and S. Wastell (eds.), Thinking Through Things. Theorizing Artefacts Ethnographically, pp. 141-66. London: Routledge.

2006   "Tarrying with repression. Political anecdotes and social memory on Northern Mongolia". Inner Asia 8 (2), 163-182.        

2001   Totemism, animism and North Asian indigenous ontologies". Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 7 (3), pp. 411-427.

Book chapters and commentaries

In press   “Introduction: Times of Security”. In Times of Security: Ethnographies of Fear, Protest and the Future, M. Holbraad & M. A. Pedersen (eds.), London: Routledge.

In press   “The Fetish of Connectivity”. In Objects and Materials.  A Routledge Companion”, G. Evans, E. Silva and N. Thoburn (eds). London: Routledge.

In press   ”Islands of Nature. Insular Objects and Frozen Sprits in Northern Mongolia”. In Nature/Society, K. Hastrup (ed.). London: Routledge.

In press   “’Vi bebor mangfoldige verdener’: for udsagnet”. Tidsskrift for Antropologi.

2012   “Common Nonsense. A review of certain recent reviews of the “ontological turn”. Anthropology of This Century, 5.

2012   ”The Taiga Within: Folding Persons and Places in  Northern Mongolia”. In Wilderness Mythologies, L. Feldt (eds.), pp. 241-64. Leiden : Brill N.V.

2012   “The Ethnographic Expedition 2.0”. In Scientists and Scholars in the Field: Studies in the History of Fieldwork and Expeditions, C. Ries, Nielsen K. & M. Harbsmeier (eds), pp.  415-430. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press. Co-authored with Mikkel Bunkenborg

2011   Commentary to M. Candea: “Our Division of the  Universe': making a space for the non-political in the anthropology of politics”. Current Anthropology 52 (3): 325-26.

2011   “Planeta M: A abstraco intensa de Marilyn Strathern”. Revista Conexões Parciais 1 (1): 5-35. Co-Authored with Martin Holbraad

2010   "The Virtual Temple. The power of relics in Darhad  Mongolian Buddhism". In I. Charleux,  G. Delaplace and R. Hamayon (eds.) Representing Power in Modern Inner Asia: Conventions, alternatives and oppositions, pp. 245-258. Bellingham: Western Washington University Press

2010   “Proportional Holism: Joking the Cosmos into the Right Shape in Northern Asia”. In Experiments with Holism, N. Bubandt and T. Otto (eds.), pp. 162-78. London: Blackwell. Co-authored with Rane Willerslev.

2009   "At home away from homes. Navigating the taiga in Northern Mongolia". In P. Kirby (ed.), Boundless Worlds. An Anthropological Approach to Movement, pp. 135-152. Oxford: Berghahn Books.

2008   "Planet M". Cambridge Anthropology 28: 43-65. Co-authored with Martin Holbraad.

2007   "Public' and 'private' markets in postsocialist Mongolia". Anthropology of East Europe Review 26 (1): 64-72.

2007   "Tame from within. Landscapes of the religious imagination among the Darxads of Northern Mongolia". The Mongolia-Tibet Interface. Opening New Research Terrains in Inner Asia, U. Bulag & H. Diemberger (eds.), 175-196. Leiden: Brill.

2007   Commentary on Fausto, C. "Feasting on people: Eating animals and humans in Amazonia". Current Anthropology 48 (4): 518-19.

2006   "Where is the centre? The spatial distribution of power in post-socialist rural Mongolia". In Mongolia from Country to City, O. Bruun & L. Narangoa (eds.), pp. 82-109. Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies.

2004   "Autoritet: shamaner, præster og religiøs viden". In Viden om Verden, K. Hastrup (ed.). pp. 283-302. Copenhagen: Hans Reitzel. Co-authored with C. Rubow.

2003   "Networking the landscape. Place, power and decision making in Northern Mongolia". In Imagining Nature. Practises of Cosmology and Identity, A. Roebstorff, N. Bubandt & K. Kull (eds.): 238-259. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.

2003   “Humor, shamanisme og tid i det nordlige Mongoliet”.   In Spor af Tid: Antropologiske  Perspektiver, J. Bjønness & A. Ostenfeld-Rosenthal (eds.), pp. 79-102. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.

Reviews, ethnographic films, and research dissemination

2004   Book review of G. Tschinag: "Den blå himmel" (Roskilde: Balzer), GER 48.

2002   The Wild East. Portrait of an Urban Nomad Copenhagen: Haslund Film. Directed by M. Haslund-Christensen, manuscript M. A. Pedersen.

2001   “Kollektive erindringsattituder i Mongoliet og Buriatien”. Jordens Folk 41: 42-52

1997   Book review of V. Strang: “Uncommon Ground: Cultural Landscapes and Environmental Values", Cambridge Anthropology 20 (1-2), pp. 180-83.

1995 (ed.)   På rejse i Sibirien: tre danske ekspeditioners møde med Sibiriens indfødte befolkningsgrupper. Moesgaard: Moesgaard Museum. Co-edited with I. Asmussen, A. Damm, and R. Willerslev.

1995   “Mellem himmel og jord: Nordøstsibiriens religioner før og nu”. In På rejse i Sibirien: tre danske ekspeditioners møde med Sibiriens indfødte befolkningsgrupper, I. Asmussen et. al, pp. 36-47. Moesgaard: Moesgaard Museum.

1995   “Nordøstsibiriens indfødte befolkningsgrupper”. In På rejse i Sibirien: tre danske ekspeditioners møde med Sibiriens indfødte befolkningsgrupper, I. Asmussen et al, pp. 7-21. Moesgaard: Moesgaard Museum Press. Co-authored with R. Willerslev.

Doctoral students

  • Mr Christian Vium Andersen, Waterworlds/Dep. of Anthropology, Copenhagen University. PhD Project: Water as a Political Intensity in Mauritania
  • Ms Ida Sofie Matzen, CAST/Dep. Of Anthropology, Copenhagen University. PhD project: Sufi Cosmology and the Political Imagination in Lahore, Pakistan
  • Ms Lise Røjskjær Pedersen, Department of Anthropology, Copenhagen University. PhD project: Innovative Misunderstandings: On the verge of the new in Danish business consultancies.’
  • Ms Sandra Lori Pedersen, Department of Anthropology, Copenhagen University. PhD project: Voiced Sounds: radio hosts and the production of multiethnic society in Paris
  • Ms Stine Simonsen Puri, ToRS/Anthropology, Copenhagen University. PhD project: Gambling and Corruption on a New Delhi Horse Racing Ground
  • Dr Antonia Walford, IT University, Copenhagen. PhD project: Social Life of Data among Climate Scientists in Amazon, Brazil. PhD defended February 2013.
  • Dr Dan Hirslund, Dept. of Anthropology, Copenhagen University. PhD project: Cadre Mobilisation of Nepali Youth to Maoist Movement in Kathmandu. PhD defended June 2012
  • Dr Ann Fenger Benwell, Dep. of Anthropology, Copenhagen University. PhD project: Keeping Up Appearances. Women’s Strategies in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. PhD defended December 2009.